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JEL Classification Codes 



A: General Economics and Teaching 

A00 - General 

A1 - General Economics 
A10 - General 
A11 - Role of Economics; Role of Economists 
A12 - Relation of Economics to Other Disciplines 
A13 - Relation of Economics to Social Values 
A14 - Sociology of Economics 
A19 - Other 

A2 - Teaching of Economics 
A20 - General 
A21 - Precollege 
A22 - Undergraduate 
A23 - Graduate 
A29 - Other 
B: Methodology and History of Economic Thought 

B00 - General 

B1 - History of Economic Thought through 1925 
B10 - General 
B11 - Preclassical 
B12 - Classical 
B13 - Neoclassical through 1925 
B14 - Socialist; Marxist 
B15 - Historical; Institutional 
B19 - Other 

B2 - History of Economic Thought since 1925 
B20 - General 
B21 - Microeconomics 
B22 - Macroeconomics 
B23 - Econometrics; Quantitative Studies 
B24 - Socialist; Marxist 
B25 - Historical; Institutional; Evolutionary 
B29 - Other 

B3 - History of Thought: Individuals 
B30 - General 
B31 - Individuals 

B4 - Economic Methodology 
B40 - General 
B41 - Economic Methodology 
B49 - Other 
C: Mathematical and Quantitative Methods 

C00 - General 

C1 - Econometric and Statistical Methods: General 
C10 - General 
C11 - Bayesian Analysis 
C12 - Hypothesis Testing 
C13 - Estimation 
C14 - Semiparametric and Nonparametric Methods 
C15 - Statistical Simulation Methods; Monte Carlo Methods 
C19 - Other 

C2 - Econometric Methods: Single Equation Models 
C20 - General 
C21 - Cross-Sectional Models 
C22 - Time-Series Models 
C23 - Models with Panel Data 
C24 - Truncated and Censored Models 
C25 - Discrete Regression and Qualitative Choice Models 
C29 - Other 

C3 - Econometric Methods: Multiple/Simultaneous Equation Models 
C30 - General 
C31 - Cross-Sectional Models 
C32 - Time-Series Models 
C33 - Models with Panel Data 
C34 - Truncated and Censored Models 
C35 - Discrete Regression and Qualitative Choice Models 
C39 - Other 

C4 - Econometric and Statistical Methods: Special Topics 
C40 - General 
C41 - Duration Analysis 
C42 - Survey Methods 
C43 - Index Numbers and Aggregation 
C44 - Statistical Decision Theory; Operations Research 
C45 - Neural Networks and Related Topics 
C49 - Other 

C5 - Econometric Modeling 
C50 - General 
C51 - Model Construction and Estimation 
C52 - Model Evaluation and Testing 
C53 - Forecasting and Other Model Applications 
C59 - Other 

C6 - Mathematical Methods and Programming 
C60 - General 
C61 - Optimization Techniques; Programming Models; Dynamic Analysis 
C62 - Existence and Stability Conditions of Equilibrium 
C63 - Computational Techniques 
C67 - Input-Output Models 
C68 - Computable General Equilibrium Models 
C69 - Other 

C7 - Game Theory and Bargaining Theory 
C70 - General 
C71 - Cooperative Games 
C72 - Noncooperative Games 
C73 - Stochastic and Dynamic Games 
C78 - Bargaining Theory; Matching Theory 
C79 - Other 

C8 - Data Collection and Data Estimation Methodology; Computer Programs 
C80 - General 
C81 - Methodology for Collecting, Estimating, and Organizing Microeconomic Data 
C82 - Methodology for Collecting, Estimating, and Organizing Macroeconomic Data 
C87 - Econometric Software 
C88 - Other Computer Software 
C89 - Other 

C9 - Design of Experiments 
C90 - General 
C91 - Laboratory, Individual Behavior 
C92 - Laboratory, Group Behavior 
C93 - Field Experiments 
C99 - Other 
D: Microeconomics 

D00 - General 

D1 - Household Behavior 
D10 - General 
D11 - Consumer Economics: Theory 
D12 - Consumer Economics: Empirical Analysis 
D13 - Household Production 
D18 - Consumer Protection 
D19 - Other 

D2 - Production and Organizations 
D20 - General 
D21 - Firm Behavior 
D23 - Organizational Behavior; Transaction Costs; Property Rights 
D24 - Production; Capital and Total Factor Productivity; Capacity 
D29 - Other 

D3 - Distribution 
D30 - General 
D31 - Personal Income and Wealth Distribution 
D33 - Factor Income Distribution 
D39 - Other 

D4 - Market Structure and Pricing 
D40 - General 
D41 - Perfect Competition 
D42 - Monopoly 
D43 - Oligopoly and Other Forms of Market Imperfection 
D44 - Auctions 
D45 - Rationing; Licensing 
D46 - Value Theory 
D49 - Other 

D5 - General Equilibrium and Disequilibrium 
D50 - General 
D51 - Exchange and Production Economies 
D52 - Incomplete Markets 
D57 - Input-Output Analysis 
D58 - Computable and Other Applied General Equilibrium Models 
D59 - Other 

D6 - Economic Welfare 
D60 - General 
D61 - Allocative Efficiency; Cost-Benefit Analysis 
D62 - Externalities 
D63 - Equity, Justice, Inequality, and Other Normative Criteria and Measurement 
D64 - Altruism 
D69 - Other 

D7 - Analysis of Collective Decision-Making 
D70 - General 
D71 - Social Choice; Clubs; Committees 
D72 - Economic Models of Political Processes: Rent-Seeking, 
Elections, Legislatures, and Voting Behavior 
D73 - Bureaucracy; Administrative Processes in Public Organizations 
D74 - Conflict; Conflict Resolution 
D78 - Positive Analysis of Policy-Making and Implementation 
D79 - Other 

D8 - Information and Uncertainty 
D80 - General 
D81 - Criteria for Decision-Making under Risk and Uncertainty 
D82 - Asymmetric and Private Information 
D83 - Search, Learning, and Information 
D84 - Expectations; Speculations 
D89 - Other 

D9 - Intertemporal Choice and Growth 
D90 - General 
D91 - Intertemporal Consumer Choice; Life Cycle Models and Saving 
D92 - Intertemporal Firm Choice and Growth, Investment, or Financing 
D99 - Other 
E: Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics 

E00 - General 

E1 - General Aggregative Models 
E10 - General 
E11 - Marxian; Sraffian; Institutional; Evolutionary 
E12 - Keynes; Keynesian; Post-Keynesian 
E13 - Neoclassical 
E17 - Forecasting and Simulation 
E19 - Other 

E2 - Consumption, Saving, Production, Employment, and Investment 
E20 - General 
E21 - Consumption; Saving 
E22 - Capital; Investment (including Inventories); Capacity 
E23 - Production 
E24 - Employment; Unemployment; Wages 
E25 - Aggregate Factor Income Distribution 
E27 - Forecasting and Simulation 
E29 - Other 

E3 - Prices, Business Fluctuations, and Cycles 
E30 - General 
E31 - Price Level; Inflation; Deflation 
E32 - Business Fluctuations; Cycles 
E37 - Forecasting and Simulation 
E39 - Other 

E4 - Money and Interest Rates 
E40 - General 
E41 - Demand for Money 
E42 - Monetary Standards and Regimes; Government and the Monetary System 
E43 - Determination of Interest Rates; Term Structure of Interest Rates 
E44 - Financial Markets and the Macroeconomy 
E47 - Forecasting and Simulation 
E49 - Other 

E5 - Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit 
E50 - General 
E51 - Money Supply; Credit; Money Multipliers 
E52 - Monetary Policy (Targets, Instruments, and Effects) 
E53 - Deposit Insurance 
E58 - Central Banks and Their Policies 
E59 - Other 

E6 - Macroeconomic - Aspects of Public Finance, Macroeconomic Policy,

and General Outlook 
E60 - General 
E61 - Policy Objectives; Policy Designs and Consistency; Policy Coordination 
E62 - Fiscal Policy; Public Expenditures, Investment, and Finance; Taxation 
E63 - Comparative or Joint Analysis of Fiscal and Monetary or Stabilization Policy 
E64 - Incomes Policy; Price Policy 
E65 - Studies of Particular Policy Episodes 
E66 - General Outlook and Conditions 
E69 - Other 
F: International Economics 

F00 - General 
F01 - Global Outlook 
F02 - International Economic Order; Economic Integration: General 

F1 - Trade 
F10 - General 
F11 - Neoclassical Models of Trade 
F12 - Models of Trade with Imperfect Competition and Scale Economies 
F13 - Commercial Policy; Protection; Promotion; Trade Negotiations 
F14 - Country and Industry Studies of Trade 
F15 - Economic Integration 
F17 - Trade Forecasting and Simulation 
F19 - Other 

F2 - International Factor Movements and International Business 
F20 - General 
F21 - International Investment; Long-Term Capital Movements 
F22 - International Migration 
F23 - Multinational Firms; International Business 
F29 - Other 

F3 - International Finance 
F30 - General 
F31 - Foreign Exchange 
F32 - Current Account Adjustment; Short-Term Capital Movements 
F33 - International Monetary Arrangements and Institutions 
F34 - International Lending and Debt Problems 
F35 - Foreign Aid 
F36 - Financial Aspects of Economic Integration 
F39 - Other 

F4 - Macroeconomic Aspects of International Trade and Finance 
F40 - General 
F41 - Open Economy Macroeconomics 
F42 - International Policy Coordination and Transmission 
F43 - Economic Growth of Open Economies 
F47 - Forecasting and Simulation 
F49 - Other 
G: Financial Economics 

G00 - General 

G1 - General Financial Markets 
G10 - General 
G11 - Portfolio Choice 
G12 - Asset Pricing 
G13 - Contingent Pricing; Futures Pricing 
G14 - Information and Market Efficiency; Event Studies 
G15 - International Financial Markets 
G18 - Government Policy and Regulation 
G19 - Other 

G2 - Financial Institutions and Services 
G20 - General 
G21 - Banks; Other Depository Institutions; Mortgages 
G22 - Insurance; Insurance Companies 
G23 - Pension Funds; Other Private Financial Institutions 
G24 - Investment Banking; Venture Capital; Brokerage 
G28 - Government Policy and Regulation 
G29 - Other 

G3 - Corporate Finance and Governance 
G30 - General 
G31 - Capital Budgeting; Investment Policy 
G32 - Financing Policy; Capital and Ownership Structure 
G33 - Bankruptcy; Liquidation 
G34 - Mergers; Acquisitions; Restructuring; Corporate Governance 
G35 - Payout Policy 
G38 - Government Policy and Regulation 
G39 - Other 
H: Public Economics 

H00 - General 

H1 - Structure and Scope of Government 
H10 - General 
H11 - Structure and Scope of Government 
H19 - Other 

H2 - Taxation, Subsidies, and Revenue 
H20 - General 
H21 - Efficiency; Optimal Taxation 
H22 - Incidence 
H23 - Externalities; Redistributive Effects 
H24 - Personal Income and Other Nonbusiness Taxes 
H25 - Business Taxes 
H26 - Tax Evasion 
H29 - Other 

H3 - Fiscal Policies and Behavior of Economic Agents 
H30 - General 
H31 - Household 
H32 - Firm 
H39 - Other 

H4 - Publicly Provided Goods 
H40 - General 
H41 - Public Goods 
H42 - Publicly Provided Private Goods 
H43 - Project Evaluation; Social Discount Rate 
H49 - Other 

H5 - National Government Expenditures and Related Policies 
H50 - General 
H51 - Government Expenditures and Health 
H52 - Government Expenditures and Education 
H53 - Government Expenditures and Welfare Programs 
H54 - Infrastructures 
H55 - Social Security and Public Pensions 
H56 - National Security and War 
H57 - Procurement 
H59 - Other 

H6 - National Budget, Deficit, and Debt 
H60 - General 
H61 - Budget; Budget Systems 
H62 - Deficit 
H63 - Debt; Debt Management 
H69 - Other 

H7 - State and Local Government; Intergovernmental Relations 
H70 - General 
H71 - State and Local Taxation, Subsidies, and Revenue 
H72 - State and Local Budget and Expenditures 
H73 - Interjurisdictional Differentials and Their Effects 
H74 - State and Local Borrowing 
H77 - Intergovernmental Relations 
H79 - Other 

H8 - Miscellaneous Issues 
H80 - General 
H81 - Governmental Loans and Credits 
H82 - Governmental Property 
H87 - International Fiscal Issues 
H89 - Other 
I: Health, Education, and Welfare 

I00 - General 

I1 - Health 
I10 - General 
I11 - Analysis of Health Care Markets 
I12 - Health Production: Nutrition, Mortality, Morbidity, Disability,

and Economic Behavior 
I18 - Government Policy; Regulation; Public Health 
I19 - Other 

I2 - Education 
I20 - General 
I21 - Analysis of Education 
I22 - Educational Finance 
I28 - Government Policy 
I29 - Other 

I3 - Welfare and Poverty 
I30 - General 
I31 - General Welfare; Basic Needs; Quality of Life 
I32 - Measurement and Analysis of Poverty 
I38 - Provision and Effects of Welfare Programs 
I39 - Other 
J: Labor and Demographic Economics 

J00 - General 

J1 - Demographic Economics 
J10 - General 
J11 - Demographic Trends and Forecasts 
J12 - Marriage; Marital Dissolution; Family Structure 
J13 - Fertility; Child Care; Children; Youth 
J14 - Economics of the Elderly 
J15 - Economics of Minorities 
J16 - Economics of Gender 
J17 - Value of Life; Foregone Income 
J18 - Public Policy 
J19 - Other 

J2 - Time Allocation, Work Behavior, and Employment Determination 
J20 - General 
J21 - Labor Force and Employment, Size, and Structure 
J22 - Time Allocation and Labor Supply 
J23 - Employment Determination; Demand for Labor; Self-employment 
J24 - Human Capital Formation; Occupational Choice; Labor Productivity 
J26 - Retirement; Retirement Policies 
J28 - Safety; Accidents; Industrial Health; Job Satisfaction; Related Public Policy 
J29 - Other 

J3 - Wages, Compensation, and Labor Costs 
J30 - General 
J31 - Wage Level and Structure; Wage Differentials by Skill, Training, Occupation, etc. 
J32 - Nonwage Labor Costs and Benefits 
J33 - Compensation Packages; Payment Methods 
J38 - Public Policy 
J39 - Other 

J4 - Particular Labor Markets 
J40 - General 
J41 - Contracts: Specific Human Capital, Matching Models, Efficiency Wage Models,

and Internal Labor Markets 
J42 - Monopsony; Segmented Labor Markets 
J43 - Agricultural Labor Markets 
J44 - Professional Labor Markets and Occupations 
J45 - Public Sector Labor Markets 
J49 - Other 

J5 - Labor-Management Relations, Trade Unions, and Collective Bargaining 
J50 - General 
J51 - Trade Unions: Objectives, Structure, and Effects 
J52 - Dispute Resolution: Strikes; Arbitration; Mediation 
J53 - Labor-Management Relations; Industrial Jurisprudence 
J54 - Producer Cooperatives; Labor Managed Firms 
J58 - Public Policy 
J59 - Other 

J6 - Mobility, Unemployment, and Vacancies 
J60 - General 
J61 - Geographic Labor Mobility; Immigrant Workers 
J62 - Occupational and Intergenerational Mobility 
J63 - Turnover; Vacancies; Layoffs 
J64 - Unemployment: Models, Duration, Incidence, and Job Search 
J65 - Unemployment Insurance; Severance Pay; Plant Closings 
J68 - Public Policy 
J69 - Other 

J7 - Discrimination 
J70 - General 
J71 - Discrimination 
J78 - Public Policy 
J79 - Other 
K: Law and Economics 

K00 - General 

K1 - Basic Areas of Law 
K10 - General 
K11 - Property Law 
K12 - Contract Law 
K13 - Tort Law and Product Liability 
K14 - Criminal Law 
K19 - Other 

K2 - Regulation and Business Law 
K20 - General 
K21 - Antitrust Law 
K22 - Corporation and Securities Law 
K23 - Regulated Industries and Administrative Law 
K29 - Other 

K3 - Other Substantive Areas of Law 
K30 - General 
K31 - Labor Law 
K32 - Environmental, Health, and Safety Law 
K33 - International Law 
K34 - Tax Law 
K39 - Other 

K4 - Legal Procedure, the Legal System, and Illegal Behavior 
K40 - General 
K41 - Litigation Process 
K42 - Illegal Behavior and the Enforcement of Law 
K49 - Other 
L: Industrial Organization 

L00 - General 

L1 - Market Structure, Firm Strategy, and Market Performance 
L10 - General 
L11 - Production, Pricing, and Market Structure; Size Distribution of Firms 
L12 - Monopoly; Monopolization Strategies 
L13 - Oligopoly and Other Imperfect Markets 
L14 - Transactional Relationships; Contracts and Reputation 
L15 - Information and Product Quality 
L16 - Industrial Organization and Macroeconomics; Macroeconomic Industrial

Structure 
L19 - Other 

L2 - Firm Objectives, Organization, and Behavior 
L20 - General 
L21 - Business Objectives of the Firm 
L22 - Firm Organization and Market Structure: Markets vs. Hierarchies; Vertical

Integration 
L23 - Organization of Production 
L29 - Other 

L3 - Nonprofit Organizations and Public Enterprise 
L30 - General 
L31 - Nonprofit Institutions 
L32 - Public Enterprises 
L33 - Boundaries of Public and Private Enterprise; Privatization; Contracting Out 
L39 - Other 

L4 - Antitrust Policy 
L40 - General 
L41 - Monopolization; Horizontal Anticompetitive Practices 
L42 - Vertical Restraints; Resale Price Maintenance; Quantity Discounts 
L43 - Legal Monopolies and Regulation or Deregulation 
L44 - Antitrust Policy and Public Enterprise, Nonprofit Institutions, and

Professional Organizations 
L49 - Other 

L5 - Regulation and Industrial Policy 
L50 - General 
L51 - Economics of Regulation 
L52 - Industrial Policy; Sectoral Planning Methods 
L59 - Other 

L6 - Industry Studies: Manufacturing 
L60 - General 
L61 - Metals and Metal Products; Cement; Glass; Ceramics 
L62 - Automobiles; Other Transportation Equipment 
L63 - Microelectronics; Computers; Communications Equipment 
L64 - Other Machinery; Business Equipment 
L65 - Chemicals; Drugs 
L66 - Food; Beverages; Cosmetics; Tobacco 
L67 - Other Consumer Nondurables: Clothing, Textiles, Shoes, and Leather 
L68 - Appliances; Other Consumer Durables 
L69 - Other 

L7 - Industry Studies: Primary Products and Construction 
L70 - General 
L71 - Mining, Extraction, and Refining: Hydrocarbon Fuels 
L72 - Mining, Extraction, and Refining: Other Nonrenewable Resources 
L73 - Forest Products: Lumber and Paper 
L74 - Construction 
L79 - Other 

L8 - Industry Studies: Services 
L80 - General 
L81 - Retail and Wholesale Trade; Warehousing 
L82 - Entertainment; Media (Performing Arts, Visual Arts, Broadcasting,

Publishing, etc.) 
L83 - Sports; Gambling; Recreation; Tourism 
L84 - Personal and Professional Services 
L85 - Real Estate Services 
L86 - Information Services; Computer Software 
L89 - Other 

L9 - Industry Studies: Transportation and Utilities 
L90 - General 
L91 - Transportation: General 
L92 - Railroads and Other Surface Transportation: Autos, Buses, Trucks, and

Water Carriers 
L93 - Air Transportation 
L94 - Electric Utilities 
L95 - Gas Utilities; Pipelines; Water Utilities 
L96 - Telecommunications 
L97 - Utilities: General 
L98 - Government Policy 
L99 - Other 
M: Business Administration and Business Economics; Marketing; Accounting 

M00 - General 

M1 - Business Administration 
M10 - General 
M11 - Production Management 
M12 - Personnel Management 
M13 - Entrepreneurship 
M14 - Corporate Culture; Social Responsibility 
M19 - Other 

M2 - Business Economics 
M20 - General 
M21 - Business Economics 
M29 - Other 

M3 - Marketing and Advertising 
M30 - General 
M31 - Marketing 
M37 - Advertising 
M39 - Other 

M4 - Accounting 
M40 - General 
M41 - Accounting 
M49 - Other 

M5 - Personnel Economics 
M50 - General 
M51 - Firm Employment Decisions - Promotions (hiring, firing, turnover, part-time,

seniority issues) 
M52 - Compensation and Compensation Methods and Their Effects (stock options,

fringe benefits, incentives, seniority issues) 
M53 - Training 
M54 - Labor Management (team formation, worker empowerment, job design, tasks

and authority, job satisfaction) 
M55 - Labor Contracting Devices: Outsourcing - Franchising - Other 
M59 - Other 
N: Economic History 

N00 - General 
N01 - Development of the Discipline: Historiographical; Sources and Methods 

N1 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics; Growth and Fluctuations 
N10 - General, International, or Comparative 
N11 - U.S.; Canada: Pre-1913 
N12 - U.S.; Canada: 1913-71 
N13 - Europe: Pre-1913 
N14 - Europe: 1913-71 
N15 - Asia including Middle East 
N16 - Latin America; Caribbean 
N17 - Africa; Oceania 

N2 - Financial Markets and Institutions 
N20 - General, International, or Comparative 
N21 - U.S.; Canada: Pre-1913 
N22 - U.S.; Canada: 1913-71 
N23 - Europe: Pre-1913 
N24 - Europe: 1913-71 
N25 - Asia including Middle East 
N26 - Latin America; Caribbean 
N27 - Africa; Oceania 

N3 - Labor, Demography, Education, Income, and Wealth 
N30 - General, International, or Comparative 
N31 - U.S.; Canada: Pre-1913 
N32 - U.S.; Canada: 1913-71 
N33 - Europe: Pre-1913 
N34 - Europe: 1913-71 
N35 - Asia including Middle East 
N36 - Latin America; Caribbean 
N37 - Africa; Oceania 

N4 - Government, War, Law, and Regulation 
N40 - General, International, or Comparative 
N41 - U.S.; Canada: Pre-1913 
N42 - U.S.; Canada: 1913-71 
N43 - Europe: Pre-1913 
N44 - Europe: 1913-71 
N45 - Asia including Middle East 
N46 - Latin America; Caribbean 
N47 - Africa; Oceania 

N5 - Agriculture, Natural Resources, Environment, and Extractive Industries 
N50 - General, International, or Comparative 
N51 - U.S.; Canada: Pre-1913 
N52 - U.S.; Canada: 1913-71 
N53 - Europe: Pre-1913 
N54 - Europe: 1913-71 
N55 - Asia including Middle East 
N56 - Latin America; Caribbean 
N57 - Africa; Oceania 

N6 - Manufacturing and Construction 
N60 - General, International, or Comparative 
N61 - U.S.; Canada: Pre-1913 
N62 - U.S.; Canada: 1913-71 
N63 - Europe: Pre-1913 
N64 - Europe: 1913-71 
N65 - Asia including Middle East 
N66 - Latin America; Caribbean 
N67 - Africa; Oceania 

N7 - Transport, International and Domestic Trade, Energy, and Other

Services 
N70 - General, International, or Comparative 
N71 - U.S.; Canada: Pre-1913 
N72 - U.S.; Canada: 1913-71 
N73 - Europe: Pre-1913 
N74 - Europe: 1913-71 
N75 - Asia including Middle East 
N76 - Latin America; Caribbean 
N77 - Africa; Oceania 

N8 - Micro-Business History 
N80 - General, International, or Comparative 
N81 - U.S.; Canada: Pre-1913 
N82 - U.S.; Canada: 1913-71 
N83 - Europe: Pre-1913 
N84 - Europe: 1913-71 
N85 - Asia including Middle East 
N86 - Latin America; Caribbean 
N87 - Africa; Oceania 
O: Economic Development, Technological Change, and Growth 

O00 - General 

O1 - Economic Development 
O10 - General 
O11 - Macroeconomic Analyses of Economic Development 
O12 - Microeconomic Analyses of Economic Development 
O13 - Agriculture; Natural Resources; Environment; Other Primary Products 
O14 - Industrialization; Choice of Technology 
O15 - Human Resources; Income Distribution; Migration 
O16 - Financial Markets; Saving and Capital Investment 
O17 - Formal and Informal Sectors; Shadow Economy; Institutional Arrangements 
O18 - Regional, Urban, and Rural Analyses 
O19 - International Linkages to Development; Role of International Organizations 

O2 - Development Planning and Policy 
O20 - General 
O21 - Planning Models; Planning Policy 
O22 - Project Analysis 
O23 - Fiscal and Monetary Policy in Development 
O29 - Other 

O3 - Technological Change 
O30 - General 
O31 - Innovation and Invention: Processes and Incentives 
O32 - Management of Technological Innovation and R&D 
O33 - Technological Change: Choices and Consequences 
O34 - Intellectual Property Rights: National and International Issues 
O38 - Government Policy 
O39 - Other 

O4 - Economic Growth and Aggregate Productivity 
O40 - General 
O41 - One, Two, and Multisector Growth Models 
O42 - Monetary Growth Models 
O47 - Measurement of Economic Growth; Aggregate Productivity 
O49 - Other 

O5 - Economywide Country Studies 
O50 - General 
O51 - U.S.; Canada 
O52 - Europe 
O53 - Asia including Middle East 
O54 - Latin America; Caribbean 
O55 - Africa 
O56 - Oceania 
O57 - Comparative Studies of Countries 
P: Economic Systems 

P00 - General 

P1 - Capitalist Systems 
P10 - General 
P11 - Planning, Coordination, and Reform 
P12 - Capitalist Enterprises 
P13 - Cooperative Enterprises 
P16 - Political Economy 
P17 - Performance and Prospects 
P19 - Other 

P2 - Socialist Systems and Transitional Economies 
P20 - General 
P21 - Planning, Coordination, and Reform 
P22 - Prices 
P23 - Factor and Product Markets 
P24 - National Income, Product, and Expenditure; Money; Inflation 
P26 - Political Economy 
P27 - Performance and Prospects 
P29 - Other 

P3 - Socialist Institutions and Their Transitions 
P30 - General 
P31 - Socialist Enterprises and Their Transitions 
P32 - Collectives; Communes; Agricultural Institutions 
P33 - International Linkages 
P34 - Finance 
P35 - Public Finance 
P36 - Household Behavior 
P39 - Other 

P4 - Other Economic Systems 
P40 - General 
P41 - Planning, Coordination, and Reform 
P42 - Productive Enterprises; Factor and Product Markets; Prices 
P43 - Finance; Public Finance 
P44 - National Income, Product, and Expenditure; Money; Inflation 
P45 - International Linkages 
P46 - Household Behavior 
P47 - Performance and Prospects 
P49 - Other 

P5 - Comparative Economic Systems 
P50 - General 
P51 - Comparative Analysis of Economic Systems 
P52 - Comparative Studies of Particular Economies 
P59 - Other 
Q: Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics 

Q00 - General 

Q1 - Agriculture 
Q10 - General 
Q11 - Aggregate Supply and Demand Analysis; Prices 
Q12 - Micro Analysis of Farm Firms, Farm Households, and Farm Input Markets 
Q13 - Agricultural Markets and Marketing; Cooperatives; Agribusiness 
Q14 - Agricultural Finance 
Q15 - Land Ownership and Tenure; Land Reform; Land Use; Irrigation 
Q16 - R&D; Agricultural Technology; Agricultural Extension Services 
Q17 - Agriculture in International Trade 
Q18 - Agricultural Policy; Food Policy 
Q19 - Other 

Q2 - Renewable Resources and Conservation; Environmental Management 
Q20 - General 
Q21 - Demand and Supply 
Q22 - Fishery 
Q23 - Forestry 
Q24 - Land 
Q25 - Water; Air 
Q26 - Recreational Aspects of Natural Resources; Contingent Valuation Methods 
Q28 - Government Policy 
Q29 - Other 

Q3 - Nonrenewable Resources and Conservation 
Q30 - General 
Q31 - Demand and Supply 
Q32 - Exhaustible Resources and Economic Development 
Q33 - Resource Booms 
Q38 - Government Policy 
Q39 - Other 

Q4 - Energy 
Q40 - General 
Q41 - Demand and Supply 
Q42 - Alternative Energy Sources 
Q43 - Energy and the Macroeconomy 
Q48 - Government Policy 
Q49 - Other 
R: Urban, Rural, and Regional Economics 

R00 - General 

R1 - General Spatial Economics 
R10 - General 
R11 - Analysis of Growth, Development, and Changes 
R12 - Size and Spatial Distributions of Regional Economic Activity 
R13 - General Equilibrium and Welfare Economic Analysis of Regional Economies 
R14 - Land Use Patterns 
R15 - Econometric and Input-Output Models; Other Models 
R19 - Other 

R2 - Household Analysis 
R20 - General 
R21 - Housing Demand 
R22 - Other Demand 
R23 - Regional Migration; Regional Labor Markets; Population 
R29 - Other 

R3 - Production Analysis and Firm Location 
R30 - General 
R31 - Housing Supply and Markets 
R32 - Other Production and Pricing Analysis 
R33 - Nonagricultural and Nonresidential Real Estate Markets 
R34 - Input Demand Analysis 
R38 - Government Policies; Regulatory Policies 
R39 - Other 

R4 - Transportation Systems 
R40 - General 
R41 - Transportation: Demand, Supply, and Congestion 
R42 - Government and Private Investment Analysis 
R48 - Government Pricing; Regulatory Policies 
R49 - Other 

R5 - Regional Government Analysis 
R50 - General 
R51 - Finance in Urban and Rural Economies 
R52 - Land Use and Other Regulations 
R53 - Public Facility Location Analysis; Public Investment and Capital Stock 
R58 - Regional Development Policy 
R59 - Other 
Z: Other Special Topics 

Z00 - General 

Z1 - Cultural Economics 

Z10 - General